Aktiivsed vulkaanid

KuvaEbeko (Russia)

According to volcanologists in Severo-Kurilsk (Paramushir Island), about 7 km E of Ebeko, explosions during 10-11 September produced ash plumes that rose as high as 2 km (6,600 ft) a.s.l. and drifted S and SE. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)

KuvaSheveluch (Russia)

KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Sheveluch was identified in satellite images during 10-17 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)

KuvaSuwanosejima (Japan)

JMA reported that the number of daily explosions at Suwanosejima's Ontake Crater increased on 16 September and remained elevated through 20 September. Eruption plumes rose as high as 2.4 km above the crater rim and material was generally ejected 300 m away from the crater. Notably, explosions at 2014 on 16 September and at 0212 on 17 September ejected material almost 1 km S and SE, respectively. The Alert Level remained at 2 and the public was warned to stay 1 km away from the crater.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)

KuvaMerapi (Indonesia)

BPPTKG reported that no morphological changes to Merapi?s two lava domes, situated just below the SW rim and in the summit crater, were detected during 10-16 September. As many as 144 lava avalanches traveled a maximum of 2 km SW. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a scale of 1-4), and the public was warned to stay 3-5 km away from the summit based on location.

Source: Balai Penyelidikan dan Pengembangan Teknologi Kebencanaan Geologi (BPPTKG)

KuvaKarymsky (Russia)

KVERT reported that a thermal anomaly over Karymsky was identified in satellite images during 10-17 September. Ash plumes rose as high as 7 km (23,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted 180 km E and SE during 10 and 15-16 September. The Aviation Color Code remained at Orange (the second highest level on a four-color scale).

Source: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT)

KuvaSemisopochnoi (United States)

AVO reported that eruptive activity at Semisopochnoi's North Cerberus crater continued during 15-21 September. Weather clouds obscured views of the volcano on most days. Several small daily explosions were recorded by local seismic stations; ash plumes were not visible in satellite images suggesting that they remained below 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. and did not rise above the cloud deck. Overnight during 18-19 September small, discontinuous, low-level ash plumes were visible drifting 100 km SE. Ash emissions increased in frequency and intensity on 19 September. Ash clouds rose as high as 4.6 km (15,000 ft) a.s.l. and continued to drift 100 km SE. Sulfur dioxide emissions increased in the afternoon. AVO raised the Aviation Color Code to Red and the Volcano Alert Level to Warning at 2158. Explosions continued overnight and the next day, and ash plumes rose up to 4.6 km a.s.l. Plumes drifted 100 km NW. At 2012 on 20 September AVO lowered the Aviation Color Code to Orange noting the frequency of discrete explosions had decreased to a rate of about one per hour, though ash plumes from these events were still rising to 4.6 km a.s.l. and drifting NW. Sulfur dioxide plumes drifted N during 20-21 September.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)

KuvaGreat Sitkin (United States)

AVO reported that lava effusion continued at Great Sitkin during 15-21 September, though weather clouds often prevented webcam and satellite views. Seismicity remained elevated and was characterized by small earthquakes consistent with lava effusion. A radar image from 16 September indicated that the lava dome had grown to 1,130 m E-W and 910 m N-S, and was about 30 m thick. The edges of the dome touched the S and W rims of the crater. Elevated surface temperatures were identified in satellite data during 20-21 September. The Aviation Color Code and the Volcano Alert Level remained at Orange and Watch, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)

KuvaPavlof (United States)

AVO reported that periods of elevated seismic tremor with no clear explosion signals were recorded at Pavlof during 14-18 September. Webcam images were mostly obscured by weather clouds. Minor ash deposits on the upper flanks and at least one minor ash emission was visible in a clear webcam view on 18 September. Small low-level ash emissions that dissipated quickly were noted by observers and visible in webcam images at 1500 on 19 September and at 0900 on 20 September. Ash deposits on the mid-flanks were identified in satellite data. Seismicity remained elevated during 2021 September; an explosion was recorded early on the 21 September. The vent in the crater continued to migrate N based on satellite data. The Volcano Alert Level and Aviation Color Code remained at Watch and Orange, respectively.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)


The eruption from the fifth vent in the W part of the Krýsuvík-Trölladyngja volcanic system, close to Fagradalsfjall on the Reykjanes Peninsula, continued during 15-18 September. According to a news article lava ponded for a few days in Geldingadalur, and during 14-15 September the crust ruptured and sent a larger lava flow rapidly into the S part of the valley; the flow then turned E into the Nàtthagi valley. Authorities temporarily closed the area due to the activity and the large number of tourists; the Coast Guard rescued two people whose exit route had been cut off by the flow. Lava continued to flow on this path during 16-17 September and overtook the ?A? hiking trail. Later that day at around 1800 the flow rate decreased or paused, and only minor incandescence from the vent was visible. The Institute of Earth Sciences reported that based on aerial photography acquired on 17 September the area of the flow field had grown to 4.8 square kilometers, and the total volume erupted was 151 million cubic meters. The lava-flow rate during 11-17 September averaged 16 cubic meters per second. IMO noted that 19 September marked six months since the eruption started.

Sources: Almannavarnadeild ríkislögreglustjóra (National Commissioner of the Icelandic Police and Department of Civil Protection and Emergency Management),Dr. Evgenia Ilyinskaya (University of Leeds),Icelandic Meteorological Office (IMO),Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (RUV),Icelandic National Broadcasting Service (RUV),Institute of Earth Sciences

KuvaLa Palma (Spain)

An eruption began at La Palma after about a week of intensifying seismicity that showed hypocenters becoming shallower and moving NW, and significant related inflation. During 17-18 September the PEVOLCA (Plan de Emergencias Volcánicas de Canarias) steering committee (comprised of representatives from multiple agencies, local authorities, and institutions) reviewed mitigation, evacuation, and emergency plans. Helicopter and drone overflights were conducted in areas thought to be at risk from an eruption. IGN reported that during 17-18 September seismicity decreased, though an M 2 felt by local residents was located at 100 m depth, and vertical deformation occurred near the earthquake epicenters. IGN noted that seismicity intensified during the morning of 19 September, with earthquakes located at 0-6 km depth; a M 4.2 event was recorded at 1116 and vertical deformation increased. Authorities evacuated about 50 residents with reduced mobility and their companions from Las Manchas de Abajo, Jedey, San Nicolás and El Paraíso (El Paso and Los Llanos de Aridane), El Charco (Fuencaliente), La Bombilla (Los Llanos de Aridane and Tazacorte), and El Remo and Puerto Naos (Los Llanos de Aridane). Residents in an area prone to landslides were also evacuated. Other preparations continued at the hospital, in neighborhoods, and at evacuation centers. At 1510 on 19 September an eruption began in the area of Cabeza de Vaca, in the municipality of El Paso. Observers near the eruption site observed a large explosion that ejected material and produced a gas-and-ash plume; volcanic tremor was recorded by the seismic network. Two 200-m-long fissures aligned N-S opened about 200 m apart. INVOLCAN scientists observed seven vents along the fissures during the initial stage of the eruption. Multiple tall lava fountains fed flows downslope to the W, igniting forest fires. Photos and video posted by IGN showed multiple pulsating fountains fanning out from parts of the fissure. Ash plumes rose about 1.5 km and gas plumes rose 3 km and drifted ESE. The PEVOLCA steering committee briefly raised the Alert Level to Orange, and then to Red (the highest level on a four-color scale) by 1700 for high-risk municipalities directly affected by the eruption. About 5,500 people evacuated with no injuries reported, and authorities recommended that residents stay at least 2 km from the vents. The La Palma airport briefly closed, livestock were evacuated, and education centers were closed along with sections of multiple highways. Later that day INVOLCAN scientists who measured an area of the flows determined an average flow rate of 700 m per hour and temperatures around 1,075 degrees Celsius. By the next day a main cone had formed. The sulfur dioxide gas emission rate was 6,000-11,500 tons per day during 19-20 September. Satellite data showed a plume of sulfur dioxide drifting 475 km SE and reaching the coastline of Africa by 20 September. A map produced on 20 September by IGN in partnership with Copernicus Emergency Management Service (EMS) showed that the main part of the lava flow had traveled more than 3 km W and another branch extended about 1.5 km WSW. The flows had covered about 1 square kilometer and destroyed an estimated 166 buildings. A news article noted that activity was concentrated at four main vents, the last (and ninth) of which opened at 1956 on 20 September about 900 m from the main vents. Strong lava fountaining continued during 20-21 September and ash fell in the vicinity of the vents. Ash plumes rose 2.4-4.6 km (8,000-15,000 ft) a.s.l. and drifted as far as 55 km SW and S according to the Toulouse VAAC. Sulfur dioxide gas plumes drifted W and E at an altitude of 3 km (10,000 ft) a.s.l. By 0814 on 21 September an updated Copernicus EMS map showed that 350 homes had been covered by lava and the flow field had expanded to 1.54 square kilometers. According to a news report lava up to 12 m thick was advancing at a rate of 200 m per hour. A few hundred more residents evacuated as lava advanced towards Tacande; bringing the number of evacuees to about 5,700. The S lava branch was advancing slowly, at a rate of 2 m per hour. Later that day INVOLCAN stated that increased volcanic tremor amplitude reflected greater intensity of Strombolian explosions at the vents.

Sources: 1-1-2 Canarias,Advanced geospatial Data Management Platform (ADAM) ,Aviation24.be,Cabildo de La Palma ,Cartografía Digital,El Periódico,Gobierno de Canarias,Gobierno de Canarias,Gobierno de Canaries ,Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN),Instituto Volcanológico de Canarias (INVOLCAN) ,NOTICIAS 8 ISLAS ,rtvc Ente Público Radio Televisión Canaria,Toulouse Volcanic Ash Advisory Centre (VAAC)

KuvaAira (Japan)

JMA reported that an explosion at Minamidake Crater (at Aira Caldera?s Sakurajima volcano) at 1617 on 19 September produced an eruption plume that rose 1 km above the crater rim. Crater incandescence was visible at night during 20-21 September. The report noted that inflation around the summit continued to be recorded. The Alert Level remained at 3 (on a 5-level scale), and residents were warned to stay 2 km away from the crater.

Source: Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)

KuvaAgung (Indonesia)

PVMBG reported that activity at Agung was last observed on 13 June 2019 and a thermal anomaly over the crater was last identified in satellite images in October 2019. During the previous year deformation data indicated no changes at the volcano and seismicity decreased. During 1 Janaury-13 September white gas-and-steam plumes rose 20-50 m above the summit. On 13 September the Alert Level was lowered to 1 (on a scale of 1-4).

Source: Pusat Vulkanologi dan Mitigasi Bencana Geologi (PVMBG, also known as CVGHM)

KuvaChirinkotan (Russia)

SVERT and KVERT reported that volcanic activity at Chirinkotan was last observed during 23-24 August. The Aviation Color Code was lowered to Green in mid to late September.

Sources: Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT),Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT)

KuvaEtna (Italy)

INGV reported that tremor amplitude at Etna began gradually increasing at 0420 on 21 September and then suddenly increased at 0440. Ash emissions rose from the Southeast Crater (SEC) at 0815 and by 0855 Strombolian activity was visible. An eruption plume rose 4.5 km above the summit and drifted ENE. Within an hour lava fountaining began and the plume rose 9 km and drifted ENE. Lava overflowed the crater and traveled SW. Lava fountaining had ceased by 1130, though Strombolian activity within the crater continued. Tremor amplitude decreased at 1250 and explosive activity ceased.

Source: Sezione di Catania - Osservatorio Etneo (INGV)

KuvaKatmai (United States)

AVO reported that on 21 September strong winds in the vicinity of Katmai and the Valley of Ten Thousand Smokes blew unconsolidated ash SE towards Kodiak Island at an altitude up to 2.4 km (8,000 ft) a.s.l. The ash was originally deposited during the Novarupta eruption in 1912. The Volcano Alert Level remained at Normal and the Aviation Color Code remained at Green.

Source: US Geological Survey Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO)

KuvaPopocatepetl (Mexico)

CENAPRED reported that each day during 14-21 September there were 89-152 steam-and-gas emissions from Popocatépetl. The plumes drifted mainly NW and some contained ash. As many as five daily explosions were recorded during 14-19 September and some ejected incandescent material onto the flanks. Explosions at 1818, 1839, and 2350 on 14 September produced ash plumes that rose 1.2-1.5 km above the crater rim. Explosions at 1015 and 1441 on 15 September produced ash plumes that rose 1.8-2.2 km. During 15-17 September minor ashfall was reported in the municipalities of Cuernavaca, Valle de Chalco, Chiautla, Ixtapaluca, Nezahualcóyotl, La Paz, Ecatepec, Ayapango, Temamatla, Tenango del Aire, Tlalmanalco, Amecameca, Tepetlixpa, Tlalnepantla, and Acolman in the México State, and in Iztapalapa, Xochimilco, and Tlahuac in México City. The Alert Level remained at Yellow, Phase Two (middle level on a three-color scale).

Source: Centro Nacional de Prevencion de Desastres (CENAPRED)

KuvaSoufriere St. Vincent (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines)

National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO) reported that activity at Soufrière St. Vincent had been low over the previous few months. On 15 September the Alert Level was lowered to Yellow and remaining evacuees were allowed to return home.

Source: National Emergency Management Organisation (NEMO), Government of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

28. septembri ekstreemumid 2011-2021


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Täna Tallinnas kõige soojem on olnud 21,5°C (1981) ja külmem -3,7°C (1986).

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